65% Increase in Hospital Admissions from Rx Overdoses
Poisoning by powerful prescription painkillers, sedatives and tranquilizers; City-
living middle-aged women particularly vulnerable — According to Dr. Jeffrey H.
Coben, West Virginia University School of Medicine, across the country, very
significant increases in serious overdoses associated with these prescription drugs
are being seen. Between 1999 and 2006, US hospital admissions due to poisoning
by prescription opioids, sedatives and tranquilizers rose from approximately 43,000
to about 71,000. That increase of 65 percent is about double the increase
observed in hospitalizations for poisoning by other drugs and medicines, Coben
and colleagues found.
Opioids — examples include morphine, methadone, OxyContin and the active
ingredient in Percocet — are powerful narcotic painkillers that can be habit-
forming. Some examples of sedatives or tranquilizers include Valium, Xanax, and
Accidental - or unintentional — poisoning by opioids, sedatives and tranquilizers
rose by 37 percent during the 7-year study period, while unintentional poisonings
by other substances increased by just 21 percent.
According to Dr. Coben, unintentional poisoning is now the second leading cause
of unintentional injury death in the U.S. Among people 35 to 54 years old,
unintentional poisoning surpassed motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of
unintentional injury death in 2005.
Even people who take opioid painkillers for legitimate medical reasons are at risk of
overdosing. In a study reported by Reuters Health earlier this year, researchers
followed nearly 10,000 adults who had received at least three opioid prescriptions
within 90 days to treat chronic pain like back pain. Of these, 51 experienced at
least one overdose, and six died as a result. The researchers also found that the
higher the painkiller dose, the more likely the patients were to overdose.
In the current study, Coben’s team found that intentional poisonings - suicide,
self-inflicted poisoning, or poisoning someone else — from prescription opioids,
sedatives, and tranquilizers more than doubled, from about 10,000 in 1999 to
nearly 24,000 in 2006. That compared to just a 53 percent increase in intentional
poisonings from other substances. The biggest percent increase in
hospitalizations for poisoning for a specific drug was a quintupling for methadone,
according to the team’s report published in the American Journal of Preventive
Medicine. This may be due to the more than 10-fold increase in overall retail sales
of this drug from 1997 to 2006. Their findings stem from a comprehensive look at
the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a database that contains records for roughly
8 million Americans hospitalized annually.
What Needs to Be Done?
According to Dr. Coben, a multifaceted approach is needed to stem the tide in
poisoning by opioids, sedatives and tranquilizers. “Doctors need to perhaps rethink
the types and quantities of medications they are prescribing, and we need to get
better messages out to the public in terms of the dangers associated with these
medications and combinations of these medications that are being used.”
(SOURCE: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, April 2010)
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